Spiral Order Matrix

Spiral Order Matrix

Given a matrix A of size N X M. The task is to print the matrix in spiral order.

spiral order

Examples:

Input: A[] = [[1, 2, 3, 4],

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                      [5, 6, 7, 8],

                      [9, 10, 11, 12],

                      [13, 14, 15, 16]]

Output: [1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, 16, 15, 14, 13, 9, 5, 6, 7, 11 10]
Explanation: Shown in image

Approach 1: Iterative

The idea is to traverse the given matrix in the following manner:

  • Traverse left to right.
  • Traverse top to bottom.
  • Traverse right to left
  • Traverse bottom to top
Iterative

Continue these steps till all the elements have been visited.

Implementation of the Approach:

C++ Code

void spiralPrint(int m, int n, int a[R][C]) {
  int i, k = 0, l = 0;
 
  while (k < m && l < n) {
    for (i = l; i < n; ++i) {
      cout << a[k][i] << " ";
    }
    k++;
    for (i = k; i < m; ++i) {
      cout << a[i][n - 1] << " ";
    }
    n--;
    if (k < m) {
      for (i = n - 1; i >= l; --i) {
        cout << a[m - 1][i] << " ";
      }
      m--;
    }
    if (l < n) {
      for (i = m - 1; i >= k; --i) {
        cout << a[i][l] << " ";
      }
      l++;
    }
  }
}

Java Code

static void spiralPrint(int m, int n, int a[][]) {
  int i, k = 0, l = 0;
 
  while (k < m && l < n) {
    for (i = l; i < n; ++i) {
      System.out.print(a[k][i] + " ");
    }
    k++;
    for (i = k; i < m; ++i) {
      System.out.print(a[i][n - 1] + " ");
    }
    n--;
    if (k < m) {
      for (i = n - 1; i >= l; --i) {
        System.out.print(a[m - 1][i] + " ");
      }
      m--;
    }
    if (l < n) {
      for (i = m - 1; i >= k; --i) {
        System.out.print(a[i][l] + " ");
      }
      l++;
    }
  }
}

Python Code

def spiralPrint(m, n, a):
    k = 0
    l = 0
 
    while k < m and l < n:
        for i in range(l, n):
            print(a[k][i], end=" ")
 
        k += 1
        for i in range(k, m):
            print(a[i][n - 1], end=" ")
 
        n -= 1
        if k < m:
 
            for i in range(n - 1, (l - 1), -1):
                print(a[m - 1][i], end=" ")
 
            m -= 1
 
        if l < n:
            for i in range(m - 1, k - 1, -1):
                print(a[i][l], end=" ")
 
            l += 1

Time Complexity: O(N * M), where N * M is the total size of the matrix

Space Complexity: O(1), as no extra space is used.

Approach 2: Recursive Solution

Similar to the last approach, we can try to solve this problem recursively. The idea of this approach is exactly similar to the iterative approach.

Algorithm:

  • Consider four variables, i.e. starting_row, ending_row, starting_col, ending_col.
  • Create a recursive function for printing the spiral matrix.
  • Base cases would be: If the starting index of row/col is less than the size of row/col, then, terminate the function, else continue printing the boundary elements.
  • Run a loop from left to right and print the element.
  • Similarly, run a loop from top to bottom and right to left, and bottom to top.

Implementation of the Approach:

C++ Code

void print(int arr[R][C], int i, int j, int m, int n) {
  if (i >= m or j >= n)
    return;
 
  for (int p = j; p < n; p++)
    cout << arr[i][p] << " ";
 
  for (int p = i + 1; p < m; p++)
    cout << arr[p][n - 1] << " ";
 
  if ((m - 1) != i)
    for (int p = n - 2; p >= j; p--)
      cout << arr[m - 1][p] << " ";
 
  if ((n - 1) != j)
    for (int p = m - 2; p > i; p--)
      cout << arr[p][j] << " ";
 
  print(arr, i + 1, j + 1, m - 1, n - 1);
}

Java Code

static void print(int arr[][], int i, int j, int m,
    int n) {
    if (i >= m || j >= n) {
      return;
    }
 
    for (int p = i; p < n; p++) {
      System.out.print(arr[i][p] + " ");
    }
 
    for (int p = i + 1; p < m; p++) {
      System.out.print(arr[p][n - 1] + " ");
    }
    if ((m - 1) != i) {
      for (int p = n - 2; p >= j; p--) {
        System.out.print(arr[m - 1][p] + " ");
      }
    }
}

Python Code

def printdata(arr, i, j, m, n):
    if i >= m or j >= n:
        return
 
    for p in range(i, n):
        print(arr[i][p], end=" ")
 
    for p in range(i + 1, m):
        print(arr[p][n - 1], end=" ")
 
    if (m - 1) != i:
        for p in range(n - 2, j - 1, -1):
            print(arr[m - 1][p], end=" ")
 
    if (n - 1) != j:
        for p in range(m - 2, i, -1):
            print(arr[p][j], end=" ")
 
    printdata(arr, i + 1, j + 1, m - 1, n - 1)

Time Complexity: O(N * M), where N * M is the total size of the matrix

Space Complexity: O(1), as no extra space is used.

Practice Questions:

Spiral Order Matrix I

FAQ

  • What is the time and space complexity of the recursive approach?
    The time and space complexity of the recursive approach is O(N * M) and O(1).
  • How to traverse the matrix in anti-clockwise direction?
    The idea is the same. Just traverse the matrix from top to down, left to right, bottom to top and right to left.

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