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# Conditions and If-Else

Decision making and constructs

• Decision making statements in programming languages decide the direction of flow of program execution.
• There comes situations in real life when we need to make some decisions and based on these decisions, we decide what should we do next.
• Similar situations arise in programming also where we need to make some decisions and based on these decision we will execute the next block of code.

Python uses `boolean` variables to evaluate conditions. The boolean values `True` and `False` are returned when an expression is compared or evaluated. For example:

```num = 10
print(num == 5) #prints False
print(num == 10) #prints True```

Notice that variable assignment is done using a single equals operator ”=”, whereas comparison between two variables is done using the double equals operator ”==”. The “not equals” operator is marked as ”!=”.

Python supports the usual logical conditions from mathematics:

```Equals: a == b
Not Equals: a != b
Less than: a < b
Less than or equal to: a <= b
Greater than: a > b
Greater than or equal to: a >= b```

These conditions can be used in several ways, most commonly in “if statements” and loops.

An “if statement” is written by using the if keyword.

```x = 100
y = 200
if y > x:
print("y is greater than x")```

Elif

The elif keyword is pythons way of saying “if the previous conditions were not true, then try this condition”.

```x = 100
y = 100
if x > y:
print("x is greater than y")
elif x == y:
print("x and y are equal")```

Else

The else keyword catches anything which isn’t caught by the preceding conditions.

```x = 200
y = 100
if y > x:
print("y is greater than x")
elif x == y:
print("x and y are equal")
else:
print("x is greater than y")```

Try the following example in the editor below.

Given an integer num denoting percentage of a student, calculate the grade according to the below rules:

```If num >= 90, grade A.
If num >= 80, grade B.
If num >= 70, grade C.
If num >= 60, grade D.
If num >= 50, grade E.

Print a string consisting of single character denoting the grade.

Sample Input

`59`

Sample Output

`E`
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## Discussion

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