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## Bit Manipulation

Last Updated: Nov 17, 2023
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Bit Manipulation
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# Bitwise Operators

As we discussed in the previous video, the numbers are stored in their binary representation in computers and every single digit 0 / 1 is called bit.
Most languages allow you to perform operations which are bitwise ( this statement will make much more sense when we look at the operator themselves ). It is a fast, primitive action directly supported by the processor, and is used to manipulate values for comparisons and calculations.

1. Bitwise AND:

Syntax:

``A & B``

Values for bit combinations:

``````            a      b         a & b
------------------------
0      0         0
0      1         0
1      0         0
1      1         1``````

In other words, `a & b = 0` unless `a = 1 and b = 1`.

What does A & B mean:

A & B implies a & b for all corresponding bits of A and B.

So, lets say,

``````       A = 21 ( 10101 ) and B = 6  ( 110 )
A & B =
1 0 1 0 1
&   0 0 1 1 0
------------------
0 0 1 0 0  =  4. ``````
2. Bitwise OR:

Syntax :

``````A | B
``````

Values for bit combinations

``````            a      b      a | b
------------------------
0      0         0
0      1         1
1      0         1
1      1         1
``````

In other words, `a | b = 1` unless `a = 0 and b = 0`

What does A | B mean :

`A | B` implies `a | b` for all corresponding bits of A and B. So, lets say

``````       A = 21 ( 10101 ) and B = 6  ( 110 )
A | B =
1 0 1 0 1
|   0 0 1 1 0
------------------
1 0 1 1 1  =  23. ``````
3. Bitwise XOR:

Syntax :

``````A ^ B
``````

Values for bit a, b :

``````            a      b      a ^ b
------------------------
0      0         0
0      1         1
1      0         1
1      1         0``````

In other words, `a ^ b = 1` when a and b are different.

What does A ^ B mean :

A ^ B implies a ^ b for all corresponding bits of A and B. So, lets say

``````       A = 21 ( 10101 ) and B = 6  ( 110 )
A ^ B =
1 0 1 0 1
^   0 0 1 1 0
------------------
1 0 0 1 1  =  19.
``````
4. Bitwise NOT:

Syntax :

``~A``

Values for bit a :

``````                                a   |   ~a
-------|-------
0   |   1
1   |   0``````

It's the inverse of the bit.

What does ~A mean

~A implies inverting every single bit in A. So, lets say

A = 21 ( 10101 ) and A is a char ( 1 byte )

~A =

0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1

--------------------------

1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0  = -22 ( Sign bit is 1 ).

5. Right Shift Operators:

Syntax :

``A >> x``

What does A » x mean :

`A >> x` implies shifting the bits of A to the right by x positions. The last x bits are lost this way.

Example : Lets say

``````                A = 29 ( 11101 ) and x = 2,
so A >> 2 means
0 0 1 1 1 0 1 >> 2
====  -> is lost
========== -----> this sequence of digit shifts to the right by 2 positions
----------------
0 0 0 0 1 1 1 = 7``````

`A >> x` is equal to division by pow(2, x). Think why.

6. Left shift operators:

Syntax :

``A << x``

What does A « x mean :

`A << x` implies shifting the bits of A to the left by x positions. The first x bits are lost this way. The last x bits have 0. Example : lets say

``````                A = 29 ( 11101 ) and x = 2,
so A << 2 means
0 0 1 1 1 0 1 << 2
=============  ------> this sequence of digit shifts to the left by 2 positions
----------------
1 1 1 0 1 0 0  = 116 ``````

`A << x` is equal to multiplication by pow(2, x). Think why. `1 << x` is equal to pow(2, x).

## Bit Manipulation Problems

0/5
Bit play
0/4
Bit tricks
0/2
Bit array
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